In order to meet the needs of the use of the function and the market, the aluminum wheel hub has a monolithic and multi-piece design on the structure; the shape has wide spokes, narrow spokes, multiple spokes, few spokes and other shapes; the appearance is painted, The spoke car is coated with clear lacquer, polished lacquer, electroplating and other appearance requirements; the color of the coating is different in color such as sports silver, fine silver, bright ash, black, etc., and is large, high-strength, lightweight, Softness, beautiful appearance, etc. are the main development trends and pursuit direction of the appearance and structural design of aluminum wheels.
The materials used for the aluminum hub are A l S i series alloy (AlSi7Mg, AlSi11, AlSi11Mg, AlSi12Mg), Mg alloy, 6061 deformed aluminum alloy, and the AlSi7Mg alloy modified by Sr is the largest (about 90%).
The forming process of the aluminum hub includes gravity casting, low pressure casting, extrusion casting, semi-solid casting, forging, spin forming and a combination of several processes. Squeeze casting and semi-solid casting technology can improve the metallographic structure of the material and improve the mechanical properties of the product. It is especially suitable for the manufacture of large-size and lightweight aluminum wheels. Spin-forming technology is the plasticity developed on the basis of hot forging technology. Deformation processing technology, the aluminum wheel hub is formed by the spinning process after forging the blank, and the mechanical performance of the aluminum wheel hub produced by the process technology is increased by more than 18% compared with the cast aluminum wheel of the same specification, and the quality of about 20% can be reduced. The products are mainly large-size, lightweight aluminum wheels and racing aluminum wheels.
Comparison of rotary forged aluminum alloy wheels and popular truck iron rings:
1. It is light. The weight of the forged aluminum ring is only one-half the weight of the iron ring, taking 22.5X8.5 as an example; the forged aluminum ring is
25 kg, the iron ring is at least 45 kg.
2. Throttling fuel. In the future, the forged aluminum ring will reduce the dynamic inertia of the wheel, reduce the car's dynamic inertia, and reduce the need for braking energy, thus reducing fuel consumption, plus the air specific to the forged aluminum ring. Flow and rolling resistance, so the 100-kilometer test throttling rate is at least 2 liters of oil per 100 km (changing the forged aluminum ring and using the air-conditioning for the next 100 km of fuel consumption compared to the un-forged aluminum ring without air-conditioning fuel consumption test, the former 2.5 liters lower fuel consumption than the latter).
3. Tire wear is reduced by 26%. Because of the characteristics of the forged ring, its equilibrium value is 0, it is not easily deformed, and the temperature is fast (the normal running temperature is 20-30 degrees lower than the iron ring). The protection of the hanging system is better, so the wear of the tire is greatly reduced. Make each tire run 50,000-80,000 kilometers.)
4. The maintenance cost of the brakes is reduced. Because the characteristics of the forged aluminum ring are fast and the normal running temperature is low, the materials and accessories that are not resistant to high temperature in the brake system have excellent shelter results, thereby greatly reducing the maintenance cost of the brake system.
5, the carrying capacity is high, the carrying capacity of the forged ring is 5 times that of the popular iron ring. The forged wheels deformed after bearing 71,200 kg.
The main types of aluminum alloy wheels:
One-piece cast aluminum wheel
Although the requirements for safety, environmental protection, energy saving, comfort, and aesthetics of automobiles are constantly improving, the aluminum wheels of passenger cars are not as demanding as the performance requirements of racing cars. The integral low-pressure casting aluminum wheels are sufficient for their performance. Required, but the passenger car pays more attention to the appearance and aesthetic design of the aluminum wheel. The traditional aluminum wheel design can be seen on the road at any time. Needless to say here, here are some kinds of fashionable aluminum wheel hubs. These types of aluminum wheels are characterized by soft spokes and large size in shape and structure. Lightweight, representing the development trend of aluminum wheels, narrow spokes provide a wide space between spokes, ensuring good cooling of the brake disc and improved safety.
One-piece rotary forged aluminum wheel
Motor racing is a test of the entire vehicle technology, and the wheels are subject to a variety of difficult environments. F1 racing requires a one-piece wheel. In order to ensure the performance of the hub and the weight reduction requirements of the vehicle, the spin forming technology is usually developed based on the hot forging process.
Processing technology, the aluminum wheel hub is formed by the spinning process after forging the blank, and the mechanical properties of the aluminum wheel hub produced by the process technology are increased by more than 18% compared with the cast aluminum wheel of the same specification, and the quality can be reduced by about 20%. Mainly large size, lightweight aluminum wheels and racing aluminum wheels. F1 motorsport is one of the most popular races, and the wheels are able to withstand the extreme operating conditions due to extremely high lateral acceleration, extremely high operating speeds and harsh conditions on the track, as well as strong tyres. The effects of the temperature rise caused by wear and tear, these one-piece aluminum wheels specially designed for F1 racing, have withstood the test of various difficult environments.
Multi-piece combined aluminum wheel
The multi-piece aluminum hub is available in two-piece and three-piece versions. The parts of the hub are made by forging and spinning, respectively, and then joined by titanium bolts. These products are light in weight, high in strength and superior in performance, but they are expensive. Mainly used in all kinds of racing cars and high-end luxury cars. In all kinds of car races around the world, whether it is a car or a motorcycle, under any conditions, the vehicle can be accelerated from zero to 100km/h in just 3 seconds, so the wheel needs to be on the track. The ability to withstand the effects of extreme operating conditions due to extremely high lateral acceleration, extremely high operating speeds and harsh conditions, as well as the temperature and depth of the tire's intense wear, in this environment multi-piece aluminum wheels Withstood the test of all kinds of hard environments. Despite the light weight of the product, due to the advanced manufacturing technology, the structural strength of the product is high, and the multi-piece combination shape gives a thick and solid feeling, which can better improve the weight of the car.