The wheel rim is a barrel-shaped metal part with the center mounted on the shaft that supports the tire on the inner profile of the tire. According to the different molding methods and materials, there are many types of wheel hubs. According to the material, the wheels can be divided into steel wheels, aluminum alloy wheels and carbon fiber wheels. Steel wheels have strong pressure-bearing capacity (big trucks and buses all use steel rims), good toughness, will automatically recover after slight deformation, strong metal fatigue resistance, and low price.
1 The advantages of aluminum alloy wheels
Compared with automobile wheels made of steel materials, aluminum alloy wheels have the advantages of low density and lighter weight, which can improve the fuel efficiency of automobiles and contribute to energy saving and emission reduction. The promotion of aluminum alloy wheels is important for energy saving, emission reduction, and low-carbon life. significance. Compared with steel automobile wheels, aluminum has higher thermal conductivity. Under the same conditions, aluminum alloy wheels have better heat dissipation performance than steel wheels. Aluminum alloy wheels are more fashionable and beautiful than steel wheels. Aluminum alloy wheels are the most widely used type of wheels. It has outstanding advantages. Aluminum alloy wheels have low density, good lightweight effect, high thermal conductivity, strong reliability, and dazzling appearance. The market is huge and the technology is relatively mature. Kind of wheels. The modulus of elasticity of aluminum alloy material is not large, and its resistance to vibration is better than that of steel material wheels. This leads to a smaller vibration amplitude transmitted to the seat by the aluminum alloy wheel vehicle during the driving process, which increases the ride of the car. Sex. In terms of appearance, aluminum alloy wheels also have advantages over steel wheels. If steel wheels are not covered with plastic shell, the structure and shape are relatively simple, and the color is relatively simple. The attractiveness of the person is not high.
2 The development history of aluminum alloy wheels
Around 1920, aluminum alloy wheels appeared in the world for the first time. Around 1948, aluminum alloy wheels were applied to automobiles by engineers, and then monolithic aluminum alloy wheels produced by casting and forming gradually appeared. After 1970, more and more aluminum alloy wheels were used in automobiles abroad. my country's research on aluminum alloy wheels mainly began in the 1980s. Manufacturers began to manufacture aluminum alloy wheels. With the rapid development of my country's automobile market, it has also driven the rapid take-off of the auto parts industry. my country's production and consumption of automobiles Levels are in the forefront of the world, and the production level of my country's aluminum alloy wheels is constantly flying by.
3 New carbon fiber material wheel hub
3.1 performance advantages of carbon fiber
So far, steel wheels and aluminum alloy wheels are two types of wheels with relatively mature technology and more market applications. In addition to these two more common wheels, there is also a new type of wheel with broad market prospects, namely carbon fiber wheels. . Carbon fiber is a new type of functional material with excellent performance. In recent years, scholars and engineers have conducted continuous research and application of carbon fiber, and have also conducted research and application on automobile wheels. Carbon fiber has a special structure. Compared with metal, carbon fiber has a very small density and has an extremely prominent advantage in lightweight. But at the same time, the mechanical properties of carbon fiber are equally outstanding. Compared with steel, the mechanical properties of carbon fiber are not inferior or even better. It is a new type of fiber material with outstanding performance and suitable for lightweight applications.
3.2 The application frontier of carbon fiber wheels
In February 2018, China completely independently developed the first 100-ton T1000 carbon fiber production line. In fact, in addition to the wheel hubs, some companies with quite advanced carbon fiber technology, through fine carbon fiber weaving techniques and high-quality materials, hope to make the small parts in the car, the new drive shell and even the chassis made of carbon fiber. Yes, in addition to the common appearance kits, it also includes all interior and full car sheet parts.
Carbon fiber wheel hub is a relatively new type of wheel hub. Due to cost constraints, its application range is still relatively small. So far, carbon fiber wheels are almost limited to some super sports cars, such as Ford GT and some Koenigsegg models. This is because manufacturing carbon fiber wheels is not only expensive but also time-consuming. Porsche has released the first full carbon fiber composite wheel. Each hub is impregnated with resin and sealed under high pressure and high temperature. The hub is hardened at high temperature and cooled for a long period of time. Then the center lock is inserted, and the entire hub is covered with gloss paint. This set of 20-inch wheels uses about 11 miles of carbon fiber. Compared with the standard aluminum alloy wheels, its total weight is only 8.5KG, which is 20% lighter than aluminum alloy products of the same size, while the strength is improved. Twenty percent. This set of wheels has improved in quality and strength, as well as in terms of price. The price of a full set of wheels is about 118,000 yuan, which basically explains why carbon fiber wheels have not been widely used.
A certain company also produces carbon fiber wheels and plans to expand the limited application of these carbon fiber wheels to the mainstream production model of super sports cars. The weight reduction of carbon fiber wheels will also bring optimization space for electric vehicles, which can improve the working efficiency of electric vehicles. In addition, carbon fiber wheels are less noisy than metal wheels. Compared with metal, carbon fiber has a higher noise damping of 870%. This is because carbon fiber is difficult to transmit resonance frequencies. And if the noise of the car wheel is less, the car manufacturer can use less sound insulation material in the body, thereby further reducing the weight of the car and improving the level of lightweight.
3.3 The advantages of carbon fiber wheels and application restrictions
When encountering typical wheel damage, such as roadside scratches, the carbon fiber can be fixed with resin, similar to the repair method of glass fiber yacht. Furthermore, the cracks of the metal hub will gradually expand, and the delamination of carbon fiber materials can often prevent the formation of cracks. The main problem with the application of carbon fiber wheels is that the cost is too high. Although with the mass production of original equipment from car manufacturers, the number of carbon fiber wheels is decreasing, but it is still at a high level. Due to the outstanding advantages of carbon fiber wheels and the ability to improve the manufacturing process to reduce costs, they may enter the automotive market in the next few years. If carbon fiber wheels can be used in ordinary family cars, the development of the automotive industry will inevitably be able to reach a higher level.
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